Ginger is an herb. The rhizome (underground stem) is used as a spice and also as a medicine
. It can be used fresh, dried and powdered, or as a juice
is commonly used to treat various types of "stomach problems," including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic
, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, nausea
and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite. Other uses include treating upper respiratory tract infections
, and bronchitis.
Hsu YL, Chen CY, Lin IP, Tsai EM, Kuo PL, Hou MF. 4-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells by decreasing the repression of NF-?B/Snail on RKIP. 1. J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Jan 25;60(3):852-61. Epub 2012 Jan 13.
4-Shogaol is one of the phytoconstituents isolated from dried red ginger
, which is commercially available to consumers. Some active constituents from ginger
have been found to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
effects, but studies on 4-shogaol have been relatively rare. This is the first report describing the antimetastasis activities of 4-shogaol and the possible mechanisms. This study determined that 4-shogaol inhibits the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and causes mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In addition, 4-shogaol suppresses the activation of NF-?B and cell migration and invasion induced by TNF-?. Furthermore, 4-shogaol has been shown to inhibit the phosphorylation of I?B and the translocation of NF-?B/Snail in MDA-MB-231. This study shows that RKIP, an inhibitory molecule of IKK, is up-regulated after 4-shogaol treatment and prolongs the inhibitory effects of 4-shogaol. Inhibition of RKIP by shRNA transfection significantly decreases the inhibitory effect of 4-shogaol on the NF-?B/Snail pathway, together with cell migration and invasion, whereas overexpression of Snail suppresses 4-shogaol-mediated metastasis inhibition and E-cadherin upregulation. Finally, the animal model revealed that 4-shogaol effectively inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 in mice. This study demonstrates that 4-shogaol may be a novel anticancer agent for the the treatment of metastasis in Breast cancer