Ginger is an herb. The rhizome (underground stem) is used as a spice and also as a medicine
. It can be used fresh, dried and powdered, or as a juice
is commonly used to treat various types of "stomach problems," including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic
, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, nausea
and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite. Other uses include treating upper respiratory tract infections
, and bronchitis.
Park SH, Kyeong MS, Hwang Y, Ryu SY, Han SB, Kim Y. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger. 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Mar 23;419(4):735-40. Epub 2012 Feb 24.
Myeloid differentiation protein
2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger
(Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger
. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) or activating protein
1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1?, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-? gene and IFN-? inducible protein
10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.