Ezz HS, Khadrawy YA, Noor NA. The neuroprotective effect of curcumin and nigella sativa oil against oxidative stress in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy: a comparison with valproate. 1. Neurochem Res. 2011 Nov;36(11):2195-204. Epub 2011 Jul 13.
Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role in epileptogenesis and pilocarpine-induced seizures. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant effects of curcumin, nigella sativa oil (NSO) and valproate on the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione and the activities of catalase, Na?, K?-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats. The animal model of epilepsy was induced by pilocarpine and left for 22 days to establish the chronic phase of epilepsy. These animals were then treated with curcumin, NSO or valproate for 21 days. The data revealed evidence of oxidative stress in the hippocampus of pilocarpinized rats as indicated by the increased nitric oxide levels and the decreased glutathione levels and catalase activity. Moreover, a decrease in Na?, K?-ATPase activity and an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity occurred in the hippocampus after pilocarpine. Treatment with curcumin, NSO or valproate ameliorated most of the changes induced by pilocarpine and restored Na?, K?-ATPase activity in the hippocampus to control levels. This study reflects the promising anticonvulsant and potent antioxidant effects of curcumin and NSO in reducing oxidative stress, excitability and the induction of seizures in epileptic animals and improving some of the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs.