Nagappan A, Karunanithi N, Sentrayaperumal S, Park KI, Park HS, Lee do H, Kang SR, Kim JA, Senthil K, Natesan S, Muthurajan R, Kim GS. Comparative root protein profiles of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera). 1. Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(1):203-18.
Ginsenosides and withanolides are the secondary metabolites from Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera, respectively. These compounds have similar biological properties. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis was utilized to reveal the protein profile in the roots of both plants, with the aim of clarifying similarly- and differentially-expressed proteins. Total proteins of Korea ginseng (P. ginseng) and Indian ginseng (W. somnifera) roots were separated by 2-DE using a pH 4-7 immobilized pH gradient strip in the first dimension and 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. The protein spots were visualized by silver staining. Twenty-one P. Ginseng proteins and 35 W. somnifera proteins were chosen for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry; of these, functions were ascribed to 14 and 22 of the P. Ginseng and W. somnifera proteins, respectively. Functions mainly included general cell metabolism, defense and secondary metabolism. ATPase and alcohol dehydrogenase proteins were expressed in both plants. The results of this study, to our knowledge, are the first to provide a reference 2-DE map for the W. somnifera root proteome, and will aid in the understanding of the expression and functions of proteins in the roots of Korean ginseng and Indian ginseng.